DOI: https://doi.org/10.31493/tit1812.0102

Decorative-formative and spatial organization of representative architecture 1930s − early 1950s as a reflection of the state-ideological goal

Liudmila Bachinska

Abstract


During the first half of the social history ХХ century of European countries and the Soviet Union as a reaction to world events: the First World War, the revolutionary outbreaks in many European countries, the political, economic and cultural crisis, the disappointment of various segments of the population in the existing political regimes − in the European countries were born national-socialist parties that in some states formed totalitarian political regimes on the basis of a single party headed by a leader. From the side of state power, the replacement of the system of government led to the need for the formation of the urban environment as a carrier of a new state ideology, from the side of society there was a birth of a new social consciousness, which inevitably reflected in new directions of development of culture and architecture During the 1930s, the Soviet Union, both theoretically and practically, consolidated itself in positions of totalitarianism of the authorities with corresponding changes in architecture. Due to the common features in the system of governance, European states and the USSR certainly had common directions in architecture − axial symmetry, which as an architectural means always proclaims the order in the state, the large scale of buildings − a sign of strength and invincibility, composition based on the subordination of parts as a whole, reflecting the need for praise of power. But the differences in social stratification, which is natural in European countries, created on the basis of taking into account the property status of the owner, and artificial, adopted in the USSR, on the basis of the rise of the social role of the worker as a social hegemonic, led to the embodiment to the architecture a different state-ideological goal: in European countries − the ideal of strength, power, order, national superiority over other peoples; in the Soviet Union − equality, reliability of the protection of the state, a bright future in the life of the people.

Keywords


European states; Soviet Union; architecture; political regime; totalitarianism; state symbols; form and style in architecture

References


Architecture of fascist Italy. Empire. Ending, 2007. Livejournal Writes lord_k (lord_k). 2007-09-21 (in Russian). https://lordk.livejournal.com/199376.html.

Bachynska L.G., 2017. Influence of the political regime of the USSR in the 1920-1940-ies years on the architecture and urban development of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Multidisciplinary Scientific Edition Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference Modern Methodology of Science and Education (September 18, 2017). Warsaw, RS Global, S.z.O.O., Research and Scientific Group, Vol.01, 15-20.

Bachinskaya, L.G., 2016. Urban planning as a reflection of socio-economic and political conditions. Regional policy: historical origins, legislative regulation and practical implementation. Kiev-Ternopil. Vol.II. The materials of the Second international scientific-practical conference (December 14-15 2016). Kyiv, KNUCA, Economic thought. In two part. Part 2, 280 (in Ukrainian).

Bachinskaya L.G., 2016. The architecture of the housing of Ukraine of the middle of XX - beginning of XXI centuries: historical and analytical essay: a tutorial. Kyiv, KNUCA, 292 (in Ukrainian).

Bachinskaya L.G., 2004. The architecture of the housing. The problems of theory and practice of structure formation. Kyiv, Gramota, 408 (in Ukrainian-Russian).

Bachynska Liudmyla, 2017. The development of the architectural object is under the influence of social history. Underwater Technologies, Vol.06, 89-99.

Bunin A.V., Savarenskaya T.F., 1979. The history of urban art. In two volumes. Moscow: Stroyizdat. Vol.1, 495 (in Russian).

Bunin A.V., Savarenskaya T.F., 1979. The history of urban art. In two volumes. Moscow: Stroyizdat. Volume two, 412 (in Russian).

David Reynolds, 2017. A stormy century of revolutions in Russia: from Lenin to Putin. Acute corners of history. New Statesman, United Kingdom. RIA Novosti (10.24.2017, Alexey Kudenko) (in Russian). https://inosmi.ru/history/20171024/240598110. html.

Exhibition, which was not, 2007. Writes lord_k (lord_k). 2007-08-12 (in Russian). http://lord-k.livejournal.com/152461.html.

Gabrichevsky A.G., 1993. Theory and history of architecture: Selected works. Edited by A. A. Puchkov. Kyiv, The editorial Board of the journal Samvatas, 302 (in Russian).

Hrushka Emanuel, 1963. The development of urban planning. Bratislava. Publishing house of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 650 (in Russian).

Ikonnikov A.V., 2006. Space and form in architecture and urban planning. Moscow, Komkniga, 352 (in Russian).

Irina Gurina, 2014. Features of fascism in Germany, Italy and Spain in the twentieth century. April 8, 2014 (in Russian). https://www.iguana.ws/osobennosti-fashizmagermanii-italii-ispanii-v-dvadcatom-veke-3723.

Nazi Berlin: as in the 1930s, the capital of the Third Reich tried to turn into the main city of the planet. LAST NEWS Architecture Durries, Abroad (in Russian). https://realt.onliner.by/2013/09/20/hitlerkaput.

Gybina M.M., 2013. Search for the national character of Italian architecture of the second half of the 20's − 30's of the twentieth century. Event, Monumentalia and Modernita, Capital (in Russian). http://kapitel-spb.ru/article/%D 0%BC-%D0%BC-%D0%B3%D1%8B%D0% B1%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BF% D0%BE%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BA-%D0% BD%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BE%D 0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B D%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE-%D1%85%D 0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%82.

Moscow/Photos/Gallery/Soviet architecture in 30 years (late 1930 − 1940) (in Russian). http://mosday.ru/photos/gallery.php?file=193x194x_moscow_architecture&size=9&alt=11&r ows=all.

Rubinstein S.L., 1999. Fundamentals of General psychology. Saint-Petersburg, Publishing House Piter (Series Masters of psychology), 720 (in Russian).

Semyon Shirochin, 2017. It is ordered to build: Architecture of dictators of Europe (May 23, 2017) (in Russian). https://birdinflight. com/ru/mir/20170522-architecture-europeandictators-2.html.

Lipgart S., 2011. Continuous reconstruction of historical ensembles in the 1930s. Event Monumentalita and Modernita, 2011 (in Russian). Capital http://kapitel-spb.ru/article/% D1%81-%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0% B3%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82-%D0%BF%D 1%80%D0%B5%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%81 %D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0% BD%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D1%80%D0%B5%D 0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%82 %D1%80%D1%83%D0%BA%D1%86/.

The emergence of fascism in the early 20th century, 1922-1939 (in Russian). http://vmrake. ru/istoriya/83-mir-v-nachale-20-veka-periodavojn-1914-1949-gg/4995-vozniknoveniefashizma-v-nachale-20-veka-1922-1939.html.

The emergence of fascism in Europe in the 1920s, XX century (in Russian). http://na5ballov.pro/ist_evr/353-vozniknoveniefashizma-v-evrope-v-1920-e-gg-xx-v.html.

The experience of the human personality: Essays in philosophical anthropology, 2000. Lviv, SVICHADO, 388 (in Ukrainian).

Yuri Veksler, 2016. The architects are Hitler and Stalin (30 May, 2016) (in Russian). https://www.svoboda.org/a/27765862.html.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.